Manuscript Guidelines

Preparation of Manuscript for Basic Sciences

1. Electronic Submission
This instruction gives you guidelines for preparing papers. All manuscripts are to be submitted online. Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Word 6.0 or later. Carefully follow the journal paper submission process. The full text of the paper (except the abstract and the figures and tables that are given after the references) is formatted in two-column. Manuscripts should be written in clear, concise and grammatically correct English so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in any particular field. Manuscripts that do not conform to these requirements and the following manuscript format may be returned to the author prior to review for correction. Please note that each submitted manuscript has to be limited to 15 pages.

2. General Guidelines
The following section outlines general (non-formatting) guidelines to follow. These guidelines are applicable to all authors and include information on the policies and practices relevant to the publication of your manuscript.
Your manuscript cannot be published by our journal if
1) The work is classified or has not been cleared for public release.
2) The work contains copyright-infringed material.
3) The work has been published or is currently under consideration for publication elsewhere.

3. Copyright
Before International Journal of Science and Culture & International Journal of Social Spectrum can print or publish any paper, the copyright information must be completed on our Web site. Failure to complete the form correctly could result in your paper not being published. As you will be completing this form online, you do not need to fill out a hard-copy form. Do not include a copyright statement anywhere on your paper. The author(s) will find the copyright agreement in specified format at the “Copyright Transfer Agreement” section.
4. Style of Manuscript
All papers should be limited to 15 pages and use a 9 point serifed font through-out, Times Roman or a close variant. Margins should be 1.25 inches (32 mm, 90 pt) on the left and 1 inch (25 mm, 72 pt) on the right, top, and bottom, with a standard A4 page size. Papers should be set in two-column format, except for the title, author information and figures and tables placed after the references. The space between columns should be 0.25 inches (6 mm, 18 pt). Paragraphs should be unindented, with a 6 pt vertical spacing between paragraphs. The manuscript should be presented in the following order: Title and author information, abstract, keywords, nomenclature (optional), introduction, materials and methods, results, conclusion, acknowledgment (optional) and references.
5. Title and Author Information
All items in the title block should be centered across both columns. The title should be set in 17 pt bold, with a 24 pt space above and a 14 pt space below. The author’s names should be set in 12 pt font, with a 12 pt space below.
For each author, a numbered superscript should be used to indicate institutional affiliation and a symbol footnote mark to refer to author support information (to be included as footnotes at the bottom of the page).
Following the author information, each institution with which any of the authors are affiliated should be listed, including addresses. These should be indicated by superscripts as well, and set in 10 pt italic, with a 12 pt space below the final one.
The final item in the title block is the corresponding author’s email address. This line should begin with the word "Email:" in 10 pt font, followed by the email address in 10 pt italics. A 12 pt space should follow this line.
6. Abstract
An abstract of 150-400 words should be included in the paper. The abstract should be formatted as an unnumbered section and should be one-column. Abstracts are required for all papers. Be sure to define all symbols used in the abstract, and do not cite references in this section.
7. Keywords
Up to six keywords should be provided below the Abstract to assist with indexing of the article. These should not duplicate key words from the title.
8. Section and Subsection Headings
For those using LaTeX, the only difference between the standard article section formatting commands is that section headings are typeset in 12 pt, boldface, small caps, and centered on the line; numbering is as normal. The papers with the LaTex format should be zipped and then submitted. For those formatting by hand, section and subsection headings are numbered using Arabic numerals separated by `.' Sections are typeset as described above. Subsections (heading 2, in Word) are 12 pt, boldface, and flush left. Sub-subsections (heading 3, in Word) are 10 pt, boldface, and flush left. All levels below this are unnumbered, 10 pt, boldface, with text beginning immediately following the heading on the same line.
9. Footnotes
Footnotes in the text should be avoided if at all possible. If they must be used, they should be identified by superscript numbers.

This section should include sufficient background information to set the work in context. The aims of the manuscript should be clearly stated. The introduction should not contain either findings or conclusions.
10. Materials and Methods
This should be concise but provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be repeated by others.
11. Tables and Figures
Insert tables and figures within your document scattered throughout the text . Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively, with captions below the table or figure. Captions should be 10 pt, bold and centered. Two-column-wide figures and tables may be used as appropriate. Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Individual numbering of subfigures (using lower-case letters) is also encouraged where appropriate.
Place figure captions below all figures. If your figure has multiple parts, include the labels “a),” “b),” etc., below and to the left of each part, above the figure caption. Please verify that the figures and tables you mention in the text actually exist. When citing a figure in the text, use the abbreviation “Fig.” except at the beginning of a sentence. Do not abbreviate “Table.” Number each different type of illustration (i.e., figures, tables, images) sequentially with relation to other illustrations of the same type.
12. Equations, Numbers, Symbols, and Abbreviations
Equations are centered and numbered consecutively, with equation numbers in parentheses flush right. Insert a blank line on either side of the equation. First use the equation editor to create the equation.
Be sure that the symbols in your equation are defined before the equation appears, or immediately following. Italicize symbols (T might refer to temperature, but T is the unit tesla). Refer to “Eq. (1),” not “(1)” or “equation (1)” except at the beginning of a sentence: “Equation (1) is…” Equations can be labeled other than “Eq.” should they represent inequalities, matrices, or boundary conditions. If what is represented is really more than one equation, the abbreviation “Eqs.” can be used.
Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the main text. Abbreviations that incorporate periods should not have spaces: write “P.R.,” not “P. R.” Delete periods between initials if the abbreviation has three or more initials; e.g., U.N. but ESA. Do not use abbreviations in the title unless they are unavoidable.
13. Results
Results should be presented in a logical sequence in the text, tables and figures; repetitive presentation of the same data in different forms should be avoided. The results should not contain material appropriate to the Discussion.
14. Conclusion
Although a conclusion may review the main points of the paper, it must not replicate the abstract. A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Do not cite references in the conclusion as all points should have been made in the body of the paper. Note that the conclusion section is the last section of the paper to be numbered. The appendix (if present), acknowledgment, and references are listed without numbers.
15. Acknowledgements
The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors' industrial links and affiliations. Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest in a covering letter submitted with the manuscript. Financial and technical assistance may be acknowledged here. Anonymous reviewers should not be acknowledged. It is the authors' responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has appeared in another publication.
16. References
All references should be in 12-point font. References to published work should be referred to in the text by the last name(s) of author(s) followed by the year of publication in parentheses. For example, one may write “Zaleski et al. (2005) referred to several existing studies (Smith 1995, 1997, 2004a,b; Ko et al. 2004; Shy and Ko 2005)...” or “More information can be found in Reynolds (1999).” For unpublished lectures of symposia, include title of paper, name of sponsoring society in full, and date. Give titles of unpublished reports with “(unpublished)” following the reference. Only articles that have been published or are in press should be included in the references. Unpublished results or personal communications should be cited as such in the text.
For periodicals all of the preceding information is required. The journal issue number (“No. 11” in Ref. 1) is preferred, but the month (Nov.) can be substituted if the issue number is not available. Use the complete date for daily and weekly publications. Transactions follow the same style as other journals; if punctuation is necessary, use a colon to separate the transactions title from the journal title.
Electronic publications, CD-ROM publications and regularly issued, dated electronic journals are permitted as references. Archived data sets also may be referenced as long as the material is openly accessible and the repository is committed to archiving the data indefinitely. References to electronic data available only from personal Web sites or commercial, academic, or government ones where there is no commitment to archiving the data are not permitted in the reference list.
The references should be grouped at the end of the paper in the alphabetical order of the last name of the first author in the following style:
Ko, J.M., Ni, Y.Q. and Tian, Q.L. (1992). Hysteretic behavior and empirical modelling of a wire-cable vibration isolator, International Journal of Analytical and Experimental Modal Analysis, 7(2), 111-127.

Ko, J.M. and Xu, Y.L., eds, (2000). Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Structural Dynamics, Hong Kong, China, December.

Teng, J.G., Chen, J.F., Smith, S.T. and Lam, L. (2002). FRP-Strengthened RC Structures, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK.

Anson, M. and Zhang, J.P. (1995). On-site graphics for planning and communicating the use of site space, Proceedings of the Fifth East Asia-Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction, Y.C. Loo, ed., Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia, July, pp. 883-888.

Ho, W.M.G. (1991). Nonlinear Analysis of Steel Frames with Semi-Rigid Connections, PhD Thesis, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

Preparation of Manuscript for Humanities and Social Sciences
1. Language
The language of the manuscript must be in English (British or, American).
2. Length of paper
The length of the paper should not exceed 25 pages. Paper containing more than 25 pages words will be returned to the author(s) to abridge. Articles should be typed in double-space (including footnotes and references) on one side of the paper only (A4 size) with normal margins. Spelling and punctuation may conform either to British or American usage, providing it is consistent throughout. In either case quotation should follow the style of the original. Authors are urged to write as concisely as possible, but not at the expense of clarity.
3. Quotations:
Long quotations (i.e., of 50 words or more) will be set apart in smaller type, without quotation marks. They should also be indicated on the typescript. Shorter quotations will be set in the text, with double quotations within quotations, use single inside double.
4. Title Page
Title page should include the following information: Title Title should be concise and informative. Try to avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Author’s names and affiliations Please indicate the given name and family name clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address, and telephone number of each author. Corresponding author Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing, publication and also post-publication. Ensure that telephone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Sponsoring information If the research is sponsored or supported by an organization, please indicate it.
5. Abstract
A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length of 200 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. References should therefore be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list.
6. Keywords
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 8 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, ‘and’, ‘of’).
7. Table and Figures
Present tables and figures at the end of the article. Please note that the article will be published in black and white.
8. References
Author(s) should follow the latest edition of MLA style in referencing.
Citations in the text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Avoid citation in the abstract. Unpublished results and personal communications should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as ‘in press’ implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference List
References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters “a”, “b”, “c”, etc., placed after the year of publication.

Reference to a journal publication: Verdon, Michel. ‘Kinship, Marriage, And The Family: An Operational Approach’. American Journal of Sociology 86.4 (1981): 796. Web.

Reference to a book:
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Levi, Antonia. “The Americanization of Anime and Manga: Negotiating Popular Culture.” Cinema Anime: Critical Engagements with Japanese Animation. Ed. Steven T. Brown. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. 43-63. Print.

Reference to a web source:
Aristotle. Poetics. Trans. S. H. Butcher. The Internet Classics Archive. Web Atomic and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 13 Sept. 2007. Web. 4 Nov. 2008. ‹›.

Microsoft Word or PDF formats may be submitted online to Science Publications for initial evaluation. For online submission of manuscripts authors should go to “Online Submission” after registering himself in the website. All manuscripts should be submitted with a cover letter.